Главная страница «Первого сентября»Главная страница журнала «Английский язык»Содержание №6/2007


Дополнительные задания к книге “Britain in Brief” В.В. Ощепковой и И.И. Шустиловой

continued from No. 24, 2006; 1, 3, 4, 5/2007


Text 2. Inigo Jones and Christopher Wren

The Italian Renaissance in Britain • Inigo Jones’ Masterpieces • Classical Design • Architecture and Industrial Revolution

Inigo Jones was the first man to bring the Italian Renaissance style to Great Britain. He had studied in Italy for some years, and in 1615 became Surveyor-General of the works.

The style he built in was pure Italian with as few modifications as possible. His buildings were very un-English in character, with regularly spaced columns along the front.

His two most revolutionary designs were the Banqueting House in Whitehall and the Queen’s House at Greenwich. The plan of the latter, completely symmetrical, with its strict classical details and the principal rooms on the first floor, influenced architecture in Britain. But not during the lifetime of Inigo Jones. All those who followed him had to adapt this new foreign building technique to English ways and English climate, English building materials and English craftsmen.


Christopher Wren was the man who did it. He was a mathematician, an astronomer and, above all, an inventor. He invented new ways of using traditional English building materials, brick and ordinary roofing tiles, to keep within the limits of classical design. He, like Inigo Jones, was appointed Surveyor-General to the Crown when he was about thirty years old, and almost immediately he started rebuilding the churches of London, burnt down in the Great Fire of 1666. Wren’s churches are chiefly known by their beautiful spires which show in their structure the greatest engineering cunning.

But Wren also influenced the design of houses, both in town and in the country. The best-known buildings designed by Wren are St. Paul’s Cathedral in London and the Sheldonian Theatre in Oxford.

The period of the Industrial Revolution had no natural style of its own. Businessmen wanted art for their money. The architect was to provide a facade in the Gothic style, or he was to turn the building into something like a Norman castle, or a Renaissance palace, or even an Oriental mosque. For theatres and opera houses the theatrical Baroque style was often most suitable. Churches were more often than not built in the Gothic style. The twentieth century saw great changes in Britain’s architecture.


Inigo Jones Иниго Джоунз (1573–1652), выдающийся английский архитектор
Italian Renaissance style стиль итальянского Ренес-санса
Surveyor-General of the works главный руководитель строительных работ с неограниченными полномочиями
the Banqueting House Банкуэтинг-Хаус (расположен на улице Уайтхолл в Лондоне; построен в классическом стиле в 1619–1622 гг. Иниго Джоунзом)
Greenwich Гринвич (район на юго-востоке Лон-дона)
Christopher Wren Кристофер Рен, величайший английский архитектор (1632–1723)
the Sheldonian Theatre букв. Шелдонский театр (красивое здание в центре Оксфорда; сооружено Кристофером Реном в 1664–1669 гг. на средства архиепископа Шелдона, бывшего в то время ректором Оксфордского университета. Используется для проведения церемоний и торжественных заседаний)
the Industrial Revolution промышленная революция в Великобритании во второй половине XVIII – первой половине XIX вв.


1. Choose the best and most informative summary of the text. Say why you think so.

A. This text is about the Italian Renaissance style and its influence on Britain’s architecture.
B. This text tells the reader about the masterpieces of great English architects.
C. This text is about two great English architects, Inigo Jones and Christopher Wren, who brought and adapted to English ways the style of the Italian Renaissance.
D. This text tells us about the rebuilding of the churches in England.

Key: C is the best

2. Who did it? Fill in the blank with the right name.

A. The style _________________ built in was pure Italian with as few modifications as possible.
B. ___________________ was a mathematician, an astronomer, an inventor.
C. ________________ had studied in Italy for some years and in 1615 became Surveyor-General of the works.
D. Soon after ____________________ was appointed Surveyor-General of the works he started rebuilding the churches of London, burnt down in the Great Fire of London.
E. ______________ designed the present St. Paul’s Cathedral in London, the Sheldonian Theatre in Oxford and many other churches and houses.


1. Do you know much about styles in architecture?


Elements of the style

Italian Renaissance style

regularly spaced columns  along the front, strict classical details, completely symmetrical, the principal rooms on the first floor, very un-English in character

Gothic style

beautiful spires, which show in their structure the greatest engineering cunning, providing a facade in this style

Baroque style

richly decorated; elaborately decorated elements, often more suitable for theatres and opera houses; fashionable in the 17th and early 18th centuries after developing in Italy

2. Try to find any pictures of theatres, palaces or churches built in those styles.

3. Use the words from both columns to speak about the styles.

4. Describe the style Inigo Jones used.

5. Describe the styles Christopher Wren used.


1. Read the last paragraph of the text paying attention to one sentence with the pattern be to do. Translate this sentence into Russian.

There are several patterns with the Infinitive following the verb be. They are other ways of talking about the future:

A. be) to do is used to talk about official future arrangements. It is commonly found in newspaper reports:
The Prime Minister is to visit London next month.
Премьер-министр должен (в будущем, по предварительной договоренности, согласно предварительно намеченному плану) посетить Лондон в следующем месяце.
The architect was to provide a facade in the Gothic style.
Архитектор должен был (в будущем, по предварительной договоренности с заказчиком проекта) соорудить здание в готическом стиле.

B. (be) about to do is used to talk about something we expect to happen in the very near future.
Ladies and gentlemen, the show is about to start.
Дамы и господа, представление вот-вот начнётся. (В ближайшем от момента речи будущем)

C. (be) due to do This pattern is used to talk about something which is expected to happen or arrive at a particular time.
Flight RU 111 from Berlin is due to arrive in a few minutes.
Рейс RU 111 из Берлина должен (в ближайшие минуты, согласно расписанию) совершить посадку через несколько минут.

2. Complete the sentences using one of the patterns.

A. The train _____________ to arrive in ten minutes.

B. She looked as if she _____________ to faint.

C. The message ______________ to be sent by E-mail.

D. A new book of this author ______________ to appear next month.

E. The film _______________ to begin.

Key: A. is/was due; B. was about; C. is/was; D. is/is due; E. is/was about


1. Prepare a talk on the life and work of Inigo Jones by answering the questions below:

A. When was Inigo Jones born?

B. Why is he well-known in Great Britain and all over the world?

C. Where had he studied for some years?

E. Which were his most revolutionary designs?

F. What was the style he built in?

G. What elements and details of that style can we see in the Queen’s House at Greenwich?

2. Prepare to give a talk on the life and work of Christopher Wren. Make use of the questions in Task 1.

By Viktoria Oschepkova, Irina Shustilova

to be continued