Главная страница «Первого сентября»Главная страница журнала «Английский язык»Содержание №8/2007

continued from No. 24/ 2006;  1, 3, 4, 5, 6

Дополнительные задания к книге “Britain in Brief” В.В. Ощепковой и И.И. Шустиловой


Text 3. Westminster Abbey

History Architecture The Chapel of Henry VII Tombs and Memorials Poets’ Corner Memorials of Warriors

It is safe to say that the three most famous buildings in England are Westminster Abbey, the Tower of London and St. Paul’s Cathedral.

Westminster Abbey is a fine Gothic building, which stands opposite the Houses of Parliament. It is the work of many hands and different ages. The oldest part of the building dates from the eighth century.

It was a monastery – the West Minster. In the 11th century, Edward the Confessor after years spent in France founded a great Norman Abbey. In 200 years Henry III decided to pull down the Norman Abbey and build a more beautiful one after the style then prevailing in France. Since then the Abbey remains the most French of all English Gothic churches, higher than any other English church (103 feet) and much narrower. The towers were built between 1735–1740. One of the greater glories of the Abbey is the Chapel of Henry VII, with its delicate fan-vaulting.

The Chapel is of stone and glass, so wonderfully cut and sculptured that it seems unreal. It contains an interesting collection of swords and standards of the “Knights of the Bath”. The Abbey is famous for its stained glass.

Since the far-off time of William the Conqueror, Westminster Abbey has been the crowning place of the kings and queens of England. The Abbey is sometimes compared with a mausoleum, because there are tombs and memorials of almost all English monarchs, many statesmen, famous scientists, writers and musicians. In 1997, the funeral of Diana, Princess of Wales, took place there.

If you go past the magnificent tombstones of kings and queens, some made of gold and precious stones, past the gold-and-silver banners of the Order of the Garter which are hanging from the ceiling, you will come to Poets’ Corner. There many of the greatest writers are buried: Geoffrey Chaucer’, Samuel Johnson, Charles Dickens, Alfred Tennyson, Thomas Hardy and Rudyard Kipling. Here too, though these writers are not buried in Westminster Abbey, are memorials to William Shakespeare and John Milton, Burns and Byron, Walter Scott, William Makepeace Thackeray and the great American poet Henry Wadsworth Longfellow.

Here in the Abbey there is also the Tomb of the Unknown Warrior, a symbol of the nation’s grief. The inscription on the tomb reads: “Beneath this stone rests the body of a British Warrior unknown by name or rank brought from France to lie among the most illustrious of the land...”

In the Royal Air Force Chapel there is a monument to those who died during the Battle of Britain, the famous and decisive air battle over the territory of Britain in the Second World War.


The Chapel of Henry VII часовня Генриха VII (сооружена в 1503–1513 гг.; один из лучших образцов перпендикулярного архитектурного стиля)

Edward the Confessor Эдуард Исповедник (король Англии с 1042 по 1066 гг.)

Henry III Генрих III (1207–1272), английский король с 1216 г. (при Генрихе III создан первый английский парламент)

fan-vaulting нервюры, веерный ребристый свод (характерная черта перпендикулярного архитектурного стиля)

“Knights of the Bath” кавалеры ордена Бани (один из высших орденов; учреждён в 1425 г.)

stained glass витраж (цветные стекла в окнах, дверях, составляющие орнаментальную композицию)

the Order of the Garter орден Подвязки (высший орден; число награждённых, не считая иностранцев, не должно превышать 24; учреждён в 1348 г.)

Geoffrey Chaucer Джефри Чосер (1340–1400), поэт, прозаик, “отец английской поэзии”; автор “Кентерберийских рассказов” – одного из первых памятников на общеанглийском литературном языке

Samuel Johnson Сэмюэл Джонсон (1709–1784), английский критик и поэт, составитель словарей

Alfred Tennyson Алфред Теннисон (1809–1892), английский поэт, автор цикла поэм “Королевские идиллии” (1859)

Thomas Hardy Томас Харди (1840–1928), английский романист и лирический поэт, автор романов Тэсс из рода д’Эрбервиллей (1891) и Джуд Незаметный (1896)

Rudyard Kipling Редьярд Киплинг (1865–1936), английский писатель и поэт, автор рассказов о жизни мальчика Маугли среди зверей (Книга джунглей, 1894, Вторая книга джунглей, 1895), автор стихов, баллад; лауреат Нобелевской премии (1907)

John Milton Джон Мильтон (1608–1674), английский поэт, политический деятель; завершает историческую полосу развития художественной культуры Англии, возникшей в эпоху Возрождения; автор поэм “Потерянный рай” (1667), “Возвращенный рай” (1671) и др.

William Makepeace Thackeray Уильям Мейкпис Теккерей (1811–1863), английский романист, автор романа “Ярмарка тщеславия” (1848), воплотившего социально-типические пороки буржуазного общества, исторических романов “История Генри Эсмонда” (1852) и “Виргинцы” (1857)

Henry Wadsworth Longfellow Генри Уодсуорт Лонгфелло (1807–1882), известный американский поэт, автор поэмы “Песнь о Гайавате” (1855) – эпоса о народном герое индейцев

Royal Air Force ВВС Великобритании

Battle of Britain Битва за Англию (воздушные бои в районе Лондона и южной Англии в 1940–1941 гг.)


Complete the sentences below. Then look at the plan of the text and refer each sentence to the part it comes from. One sentence has been done for you.

0. It contains an interesting collection of swords and standards of the “Knights of the Bath.” (The Chapel of Henry VII)

A. The oldest part of the building dates from ___________.

B. Since the far-off time of William the Conqueror _________________.

C. In 200 years _____________ decided to pull down the Norman Abbey and ______________________.

D. Westminster Abbey is a fine ______________ building, which stands opposite ______________________.

E. There many of the greatest writers are buried: _____________________.


1. Read the text about Westminster Abbey again and find the words formed from the words below. Pronounce them and give their Russian equivalents.

to oppose _________
to collect _________
memory _________
fame _________
to decide _________
to differ _________
music _________
science _________
real _________
war _________

Key: opposite, a collection, a memorial, famous, decisive, different, a musician, a scientist, unreal, a Warrior

2. Imagine that you are inside Westminster Abbey. Make a list of those things that you can see there.

For example: stained glass, a collection of swords, banners hanging from the ceiling.

Compare your list with that of your classmate.


“To lay” or “to lie”? That is the question. It is really easy to confuse the forms “lain”, “laid”, “lied”, “to lay” and “lay”!
The main meaning of “to lay” is 1) to put something or somebody in a certain position; 2) to spread something on a surface. It then follows that “to lay” needs an object after it. Its typical context is “to lay something” (положить, разложить что-то) It is an irregular verb. Its forms are: to lay – laid – laid – laying.
It is a transitive verb and it can take the Passive Voice.
You can often find the following phrases with it:

to lay a carpet on the floor;
to lay the foundation of a house;
to lay the table for a meal;
to lay the blame on somebody;
to lay flowers on the grave.

Give their Russian equivalents.

The verbs “to lie” (лежать) and “to lie” (лгать) are homonyms (омонимы).
They have the same form of the Infinitive and Present Participle, but they have absolutely different meanings.
The first one is an irregular verb and its forms are: lie – lay – lain – lying.
The typical context of this verb is “to lie somewhere” (лежать где-то).
Here are a few common phrases with it:

to lie on one’s back;
to lie on one’s stomach;
to lie down on the bed;
to lie in bed;
to lie on the grass;

Give their Russian equivalents.

The second one is a regular verb with the forms lie – lied – lied – lying.
Its typical context is “to lie to somebody” (лгать кому-то) or “to lie about something or somebody” (лгать о чём-то или о ком-то).

Now choose a form of lay or lie.

A. He ____________ about his age to get the job.
B. She likes to _____________ on the bed reading.
C. The children were so tired that they ________ down and soon fell asleep.
D. Your whole life __________ ahead of you!
E. She __________ her dress on the bed.
F. He __________ his head on my shoulder.
G. The President bent down to _________ a wreath of flowers at the tomb of the Unknown Soldier.

Key: A. lied; B. lie; C. lay; D. lies; E. laid; F. laid; G. lay

Define the meaning of “to lie” at the end of the text about Westminster Abbey: “Beneath this stone rests the body of a British Warrior unknown by name or rank brought from France to lie (where?) among the most illustrious of the land…”


1. Suppose you are a guide in Westminster Abbey. What would you tell the tourists about its history?
2. Suppose your friend is going to London. What exactly would you recommend that he/her see in Westminster Abbey and why?

By Viktoria Oschepkova, Irina Shustilova

to be continued